19144

01272203258

عربي

PET CT

PET

What is PET CT?

  • PET is a functional and metabolic imaging technique. It can detect biochemical alterations to suggest disease presence, much earlier than anatomical Changes detectable by anatomical imaging methodologies as CT or MRI.
  • With well-planned integration of PET into diagnostic and treatment plans of primary and recurrent malignancies, the numbers of unnecessary diagnostic And surgical interventions are expected to reduce. The diagnostic and surgical procedures with no additional benefits on the morbidity and mortality could Be spared, saving cost and unnecessary trauma.

Why should I do it?

Besides malignancy, FDG PET can also help localize the source of fever of undetermined origin. In the musculoskeletal system, FDG PET accurately helps Diagnose spinal osteomyelitis, and in inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis and vasculitis, defining the extent of disease and monitoring response to Treatment. FDG PET may also be used in differentiating infections from other complications such as loosening in patients with painful joint prosthesis.

Any preparations needed?
Please be punctual. If you need to reschedule, notification must be given 48 hours in advance. This is because the radioactive tracer is expensive and is produced according to number of scheduled patients

  1. DIET
    For a better diagnostic PET examination, it is crucial that there is minimal physiological artifactual uptake by the organs of the FDG injection. To achieve this, Please ensure:
    • Fasting of food for 6 hours is required. Please be well hydrated and drink plain water.
    • No gum chewing.
    • No smoking on the day of the scan.
    • No change in your medication is required.

    • If you are diabetic, please inform our staff.

  2. MEDICAL HISTORY
  3. For accurate correlation with other examinations, kindly:
    Bring along all your previous x-ray, ultrasound, CT or MRI films and any blood test reports.

  4. ATTIRE
    • Wear comfortable clothing.
    • Leave jewellery at home.
    • You will be asked to change into a hospital gown prior to the start of the examination.

  5. ACTIVITIES
    • Please refrain from strenuous exercise 48 hours before the examination in order to avoid high tracer uptake in skeletal muscle.

  6. LENGTH OF EXAMINATION
    • The total examination time is expected to last about 2 to 3 hours. You would therefore have to be prepared that you will be in the department this length of Tme.
    • In certain patients, another set of images maybe necessary depending on type of malignancy or better diagnostic decisions. In such patients total procedure Time may be longer and can exceed 4 hours. Unfortunately, this will only be known after the initial images are obtained. You will be informed accordingly.
    • Some of the diabetic patients are expected to spend longer time in the department.

 

CT

What is CT Enterography?
CT enterography is a special type of computed tomography (CT) imaging performed with intravenous contrast material after the ingestion of liquid that helps Produce high resolution images of the small intestine in addition to the other structures in the abdomen and pelvis.

Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or Pctures of the inside of the body.

The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images Can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.

CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels typically provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood Vessels.

Why should I do it?
Physicians use CT enterography to identify and locate:

  • Small bowel inflammation
  • Bleeding sources within the small bowel
  • Small bowel tumors
  • Abscesses and fistulas
  • Bowel obstruction.

CT enterography is also used to diagnose Crohn's disease, and determine its location, severity and unexpected complications, in order to guide effective Treatment.

Any preparations needed?

  • You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to your exam.
  • Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. You may also be asked to remove Hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal underwire. You may be asked to remove any piercings, if Possible.
  • You should inform the technologist if you have a pacemaker.
  • You may be asked not to eat or drink anything for a few hours beforehand, especially if a contrast material will be used in your exam.
  • You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if you have any allergies.
  • Inform your doctor of any recent illnesses or other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or Thyroid problems.
  • Women should always inform their physician and the CT technologist if there is any possibility that they may be pregnant.

What is CT of the sinuses?
Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or Pctures of the inside of the body.

The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images Can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.

CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels typically provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood Vessels.

A CT scan of the face produces images that also show a patient's paranasal sinus cavities. The paranasal sinuses are hollow, air-filled spaces located within the Bones of the face and surrounding the nasal cavity, a system of air channels connecting the nose with the back of the throat. There are four pairs of sinuses, each Connected to the nasal cavity by small openings.

Why should I do it?
CT of the sinuses primarily is used to:

  • Detect the presence of inflammatory diseases.
  • Plan for surgery by defining anatomy or giving further information about tumors of the nasal cavity and sinuses.
  • Evaluate sinuses that are filled with fluid or thickened sinus membranes.
  • Help diagnose sinusitis.

Any preparations needed?

  • You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to your exam.
  • Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. You may also be asked to remove Hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal underwire. You may be asked to remove any piercings, if Possible.
  • You should inform the technologist if you have a pacemaker.
  • You may be asked not to eat or drink anything for a few hours beforehand, especially if a contrast material will be used in your exam.
  • You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if you have any allergies.
  • Inform your doctor of any recent illnesses or other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or Thyroid problems.
  • Women should always inform their physician and the CT technologist if there is any possibility that they may be pregnant.

What is CT of the spine?
Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or Pictures of the inside of the body.
The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images Can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.
CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels typically provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood Vessels.
Using CT, the bony structure of the spinal vertebrae is clearly and accurately shown, as are the intervertebral disks and, to some degree, the spinal cord.

Why should I do it?
CT scanning of the spine is also performed to:

  • Evaluate the spine before and after surgery.
  • Help diagnose spinal pain. One of the most common causes of spinal pain that may be diagnosed by CT is a herniated intervertebral disk. Occasionally, this Diagnosis is made using CT myelography.
  • Accurately measure bone density in the spine and predict whether vertebral fractures are likely to occur in patients who are at risk of osteoporosis.
  • Assess for congenital anomalies of the spine or scoliosis.
  • Detect various types of tumors in the vertebral column, including those that have spread there from another area of the body. Some tumors that arise Elsewhere are first identified by finding deposits of malignant cells (metastases) in the vertebrae; prostate cancer is an example.
  • Guide diagnostic procedures such as the biopsy of a suspicious area to detect cancer, or the removal of fluid from a localized infection (abscess).

In patients with narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal, vertebral fracture, infection or degenerative disease such as arthritis, CT of the spine may provide Important information when performed alone or in addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Any preparations needed?

  • You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to your exam.
  • Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. You may also be asked to remove Hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal underwire. You may be asked to remove any piercings, if Possible.
  • You should inform the technologist if you have a pacemaker.
  • You may be asked not to eat or drink anything for a few hours beforehand, especially if a contrast material will be used in your exam.
  • You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if you have any allergies.
  • Inform your doctor of any recent illnesses or other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or Thyroid problems.
  • Women should always inform their physician and the CT technologist if there is any possibility that they may be pregnant.

What is CT urography?
Urography is an examination used to evaluate the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Excretory urography, also known as intravenous pyelogram, is performed using Conventional x-ray after the intravenous administration of radiographic contrast material. This technique is still performed for pediatric patients and for younger Adult patients.

Computed tomography (CT) urography and magnetic resonance (MR) urography use CT and MR images, respectively, after intravenous contrast material to Obtain images of the urinary tract. CT urography (CTU) and MR urography (MRU) are used as primary imaging techniques to evaluate patients with blood in the Urine (hematuria), follow patients with prior history of cancers of the urinary collecting system and to identify abnormalities in patients with recurrent urinary tract Infections. In addition to imaging the urinary tract, CT and MR urography can provide valuable information about other abdominal and pelvic structures and Diseases that may affect them.

Why should I do it?
Urography images are used to evaluate issues or detect abnormalities in portions of the urinary tract, including the kidneys, bladder and ureters, including:

  • Hematuria (blood in urine)
  • Kidney or bladder stones
  • Cancers of the urinary tract

Any preparations needed?

  • You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to your exam.
  • Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. You may also be asked to remove Hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal underwire. You may be asked to remove any piercings, if Possible.
  • You should inform the technologist if you have a pacemaker.
  • You may be asked not to eat or drink anything for a few hours beforehand, especially if a contrast material will be used in your exam.
  • You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if you have any allergies.
  • Inform your doctor of any recent illnesses or other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or Thyroid problems.
  • Women should always inform their physician and the CT technologist if there is any possibility that they may be pregnant.
MRI

What is Whole Body MRI?
Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a medical diagnostic technique that utilizes radio waves and a strong magnetic field to create images of the body.
A versatile, powerful and sensitive tool, MRI can generate multi-planar images of the body. This will enable the structures of the whole body to be studied. Whole body MRI can be utilized in two different subject groups:

  1. Normal subjects in screening study, and
  2. Patients with known malignancy or other disease to evaluate the extent of the disease.

It is a non-invasive procedure, and there are no known side or after effects. The procedure is painless.

Why should I do it?
The procedure is used because:

  • Images of soft-tissue structures such as muscles are clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods.
  • Fast, non-invasive screening test.
  • Does not require exposure to radiation or the introduction of radioisotopes to the body.
  • Enables the visualization of the head and spine structures

Any preparations needed?

  • Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with the specific exam.
  • The radiologist or technologist may ask if you have allergies of any kind, such as allergy to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, the environment, or Asthma.
  • The radiologist should also know if you have any serious health problems, or if you have recently had surgery.
  • Women should always inform their physician or technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant.
  • If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your physician for a prescription for a mild sedative prior to the scheduled Examination.
  • Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. These items include
    • Jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged.
    • Pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images.
    • Removable dental work.
    • Pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses.
  • People with the following implants cannot be scanned and should not enter the MRI scanning area unless explicitly instructed to do so by a radiologist or Technologist who is aware of the presence of any of the following:
    • Internal (implanted) defibrillator or pacemaker
    • Cochlear (ear) implant
    • Some types of clips used on brain aneurysms
    • Some types of metal coils placed within blood vessels
  • You should tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body, because they may interfere with the exam or potentially pose a risk, Depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Some implanted devices require a short period of time after placement (usually six weeks) Before being safe for MRI examinations. Examples include but are not limited to:
    • Artificial heart valves
    • Implanted drug infusion ports
    • Implanted electronic device, including a cardiac pacemaker
    • Artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses
    • Implanted nerve stimulators
    • Metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical staples
  • A recently placed artificial joint may require the use of another imaging procedure. If there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect And identify any metal objects.
  • Patients who might have metal objects in certain parts of their bodies may also require an x-ray prior to an MRI.
  • Parents who accompany children into the scanning room also need to remove metal objects and notify the technologist of any medical or electronic devices They may have.
  • Infants and young children may require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving

What is Direct Arthrography?
Arthrography is medical imaging to evaluate conditions of joints. It can either be direct or indirect. Indirect arthrography is a medical imaging technique in which Contrast material is injected into the blood stream and eventually absorbs into the joint.

With direct arthrography, however, the contrast material is injected directly into the joint. Direct arthrography is the preferred method because it is better for Distending or enlarging the joint and imaging small internal structures, thus allowing for better evaluation of diseases or conditions within the joint. It is often Performed only if a non-arthrographic exam is felt to be inadequate in assessing a joint abnormality.
There are several methods to perform direct arthrography.

Conventional direct arthrography of a joint often uses a special form of x-ray calledfluoroscopy to guide and evaluate the injection of iodine contrast material Directly into the joint. In some cases, ultrasound may be used to guide the procedure. Alternate methods of direct arthrography examinations may also use Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) following contrast material injection into the joint.

An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of The body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical Imaging.

Fluoroscopy makes it possible to see bones, joints and internal organs in motion. When iodine contrast is injected into the joint, it fills the entire joint and Becomes clearly visible during x-ray evaluation, allowing the radiologist to assess the anatomy and function of the joint. Although the injection is typically Monitored by fluoroscopy, the examination also commonly involves taking radiographs for documentation. The images are most often stored and viewed Electronically.

Similarly, direct MR arthrography also involves the injection of a contrast material into the joint. The contrast material used for MR evaluation is different from that Used for x-ray; it contains gadolinium, which affects the local magnetic field within the joint. As in conventional direct arthrography, the contrast material outlines The structures within the joint, such as cartilage, ligaments and bones, and allows them to be evaluated by the radiologist after the MR images are produced.

MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radiofrequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other Internal body structures. The images can then be examined On a computer monitor, printed or copied to CD. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays).

CT direct arthrography uses the same type of contrast material as conventional direct arthrography and may be supplemented by air to produce a double Contrast CT arthrogram. CT makes cross sectional images processed by a computer using x-rays.

Why should I do it?
The procedure is most often used to identify abnormalities within the:

  • Shoulder
  • Elbow
  • Wrist
  • Hip
  • Knee
  • Ankle

The procedure is also used to help diagnose persistent, unexplained joint pain or discomfort. In some cases, local anesthetic medications or steroids may be Injected into the joint along with the contrast material. These medications may temporarily decrease joint-related pain or inflammation and provide physicians Additional information about possible sources of joint pain.

Any preparations needed?

  • Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with the specific exam.
  • The radiologist or technologist may ask if you have allergies of any kind, such as allergy to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, the environment, or Asthma.
  • The radiologist should also know if you have any serious health problems, or if you have recently had surgery.
  • Women should always inform their physician or technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant.
  • If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your physician for a prescription for a mild sedative prior to the scheduled Examination.
  • Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. These items include
    • Jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged.
    • Pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images.
    • Removable dental work.
    • Pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses.
  • People with the following implants cannot be scanned and should not enter the MRI scanning area unless explicitly instructed to do so by a radiologist or Technologist who is aware of the presence of any of the following:
    • Internal (implanted) defibrillator or pacemaker
    • Cochlear (ear) implant
    • Some types of clips used on brain aneurysms
    • Some types of metal coils placed within blood vessels
  • You should tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body, because they may interfere with the exam or potentially pose a risk, depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Some implanted devices require a short period of time after placement (usually six weeks) before being safe for MRI examinations. Examples include but are not limited to:
    • Artificial heart valves
    • Implanted drug infusion ports
    • Implanted electronic device, including a cardiac pacemaker
    • Artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses
    • Implanted nerve stimulators
    • Metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical staples
  • A recently placed artificial joint may require the use of another imaging procedure. If there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect and identify any metal objects.
  • Patients who might have metal objects in certain parts of their bodies may also require an x-ray prior to an MRI.
  • Parents who accompany children into the scanning room also need to remove metal objects and notify the technologist of any medical or electronic devices they may have.
  • Infants and young children may require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving

What is (MR) Defecography?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays).

Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD.

Magnetic resonance (MR) defecography is a special type of MR imaging that produces detailed images during a bowel movement and provides information About the structure and function of the rectum and the pelvic floor, a network of muscles that stretches between the pubic bone and spine and the abdominal Organs it supports.

During MR defecography, images are obtained at various stages of defecation.

Why should I do it?

 

  • Obtain information about how well the pelvic muscles are working during a bowel movement.
  • Provide insight into rectal function.
  • Determine the cause of fecal incontinence, or the inability to control the passage of waste material from the body.
  • Determine the cause of constipation, or difficulty passing waste material from the body.
  • Diagnose and evaluate diseases affecting rectal function and pelvic floor disorders(also called pelvic floor dysfunction), such as hernia, pelvic organ prolapse Or rectal prolapse, a condition where part or all of the rectum wall slides out of place.
  • Provide information for surgical and treatment planning.

Any preparations needed?

  • Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with the specific exam.
  • The radiologist or technologist may ask if you have allergies of any kind, such as allergy to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, the environment, or Asthma.
  • The radiologist should also know if you have any serious health problems, or if you have recently had surgery.
  • Women should always inform their physician or technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant.
  • If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your physician for a prescription for a mild sedative prior to the scheduled Examination.
  • Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. These items include
    • Jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged.
    • Pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images.
    • Removable dental work.
    • Pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses.
  • People with the following implants cannot be scanned and should not enter the MRI scanning area unless explicitly instructed to do so by a radiologist or Technologist who is aware of the presence of any of the following:
    • Internal (implanted) defibrillator or pacemaker
    • Cochlear (ear) implant
    • Some types of clips used on brain aneurysms
    • Some types of metal coils placed within blood vessels
  • You should tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body, because they may interfere with the exam or potentially pose a risk, Depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Some implanted devices require a short period of time after placement (usually six weeks) Before being safe for MRI examinations. Examples include but are not limited to:
    • Artificial heart valves
    • Implanted drug infusion ports
    • Implanted electronic device, including a cardiac pacemaker
    • Artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses
    • Implanted nerve stimulators
    • Metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical staples
  • A recently placed artificial joint may require the use of another imaging procedure. If there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect And identify any metal objects.
  • Patients who might have metal objects in certain parts of their bodies may also require an x-ray prior to an MRI.
  • Parents who accompany children into the scanning room also need to remove metal objects and notify the technologist of any medical or electronic devices They may have.
  • Infants and young children may require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving

What is dynamic pelvic floor MRI?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other Internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays).

Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined On a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD.

Dynamic pelvic floor MRI provides detailed pictures of the pelvic floor, a network of muscles that stretches between the pubic bone and spine, and the Abdominal organs it supports, including three distinct areas or compartments:

 

  • The anterior (front) compartment, including the bladder and urethra
  • The middle compartment, including the vagina, cervix and uterus
  • The posterior (rear) compartment which includes the rectum.

During dynamic pelvic floor MRI, images are obtained while the patient is contracting or squeezing the pelvic muscles and while the pelvic muscles are relaxed.

Why should I do it?
Physicians use dynamic pelvic floor MRI to:

  • Obtain information about the structure of the pelvic floor and how well the pelvic muscles are working
  • Determine which compartments of the pelvis are damaged and to help identify specific pelvic muscle defects
  • Provide information for surgical and treatment planning
  • Diagnose pelvic floor dysfunction (also called pelvic floor disorders), including:
    • One or more of the pelvic organs falling out of position (a condition called prolapse).
    • The stretching or tearing of the pelvic floor which may cause incontinence, pelvic pain and/or constipation.

Any preparations needed?

  • Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with the specific exam.
  • The radiologist or technologist may ask if you have allergies of any kind, such as allergy to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, the Environment, or asthma.
  • The radiologist should also know if you have any serious health problems, or if you have recently had surgery.
  • Women should always inform their physician or technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant.
  • If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your physician for a prescription for a mild sedative prior to the scheduled Examination.
  • • Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. These items include
    • Jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged.
    • Pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images.
    • Removable dental work.
    • Pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses.
  • People with the following implants cannot be scanned and should not enter the MRI scanning area unless explicitly instructed to do so by a radiologist or Technologist who is aware of the presence of any of the following:
    • Internal (implanted) defibrillator or pacemaker
    • Cochlear (ear) implant
    • Some types of clips used on brain aneurysms
    • Some types of metal coils placed within blood vessels
  • You should tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body, because they may interfere with the exam or potentially pose a risk, Depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Some implanted devices require a short period of time after placement (usually six weeks) Before being safe for MRI examinations. Examples include but are not limited to:
    • Artificial heart valves
    • Implanted drug infusion ports
    • Implanted electronic device, including a cardiac pacemaker
    • Artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses
    • Implanted nerve stimulators
    • Metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical staples
  • A recently placed artificial joint may require the use of another imaging procedure. If there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect And identify any metal objects.
  • Patients who might have metal objects in certain parts of their bodies may also require an x-ray prior to an MRI.
  • Parents who accompany children into the scanning room also need to remove metal objects and notify the technologist of any medical or electronic devices They may have.
  • Infants and young children may require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving

What is Urography?
Urography is an examination used to evaluate the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Excretory urography, also known as intravenous pyelogram, is performed using Conventional x-ray after the intravenous administration of radiographic contrast material. This technique is still performed for pediatric patients and for younger Adult patients.

Computed tomography (CT) urography and magnetic resonance (MR) urography use CT and MR images, respectively, after intravenous contrast material to Obtain images of the urinary tract. CT urography (CTU) and MR urography (MRU) are used as primary imaging techniques to evaluate patients with blood in the Urine (hematuria), follow patients with prior history of cancers of the urinary collecting system and to identify abnormalities in patients with recurrent urinary tract Infections. In addition to imaging the urinary tract, CT and MR urography can provide valuable information about other abdominal and pelvic structures and Diseases that may affect them.

Why should I do it?
Urography images are used to evaluate issues or detect abnormalities in portions of the urinary tract, including the kidneys, bladder and ureters, including:

  • Hematuria (blood in urine)
  • Kidney or bladder stones
  • Cancers of the urinary tract

Any preparations needed?

  • Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with the specific exam.
  • The radiologist or technologist may ask if you have allergies of any kind, such as allergy to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, the environment, or Asthma.
  • The radiologist should also know if you have any serious health problems, or if you have recently had surgery.
  • Women should always inform their physician or technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant.
  • If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your physician for a prescription for a mild sedative prior to the scheduled Examination.
  • Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. These items include
    • Jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged.
    • Pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images.
    • Removable dental work.
    • Pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses.
  • People with the following implants cannot be scanned and should not enter the MRI scanning area unless explicitly instructed to do so by a radiologist or technologist who is aware of the presence of any of the following:
    • Internal (implanted) defibrillator or pacemaker
    • Cochlear (ear) implant
    • Some types of clips used on brain aneurysms
    • Some types of metal coils placed within blood vessels
  • You should tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body, because they may interfere with the exam or potentially pose a risk, Depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Some implanted devices require a short period of time after placement (usually six weeks) Before being safe for MRI examinations. Examples include but are not limited to:
    • Artificial heart valves
    • Implanted drug infusion ports
    • Implanted electronic device, including a cardiac pacemaker
    • Artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses
    • Implanted nerve stimulators
    • Metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical staples
  • A recently placed artificial joint may require the use of another imaging procedure. If there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect And identify any metal objects.
  • Patients who might have metal objects in certain parts of their bodies may also require an x-ray prior to an MRI.
  • Parents who accompany children into the scanning room also need to remove metal objects and notify the technologist of any medical or electronic devices They may have.
  • Infants and young children may require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving
X-Ray

What is a Voiding Cystourethrogram?
A children's (pediatric) voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is an x-ray examination of a child'sbladder and lower urinary tract that uses a special form of x-ray Called fluoroscopy and acontrast material.

An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of The body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of The body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical Imaging.

Fluoroscopy makes it possible to see internal organs in motion. When the bladder is filled with and then emptied of a water-soluble contrast material, the Radiologist is able to view and assess the anatomy and function of the bladder and lower urinary tract.

Why should I do it?
A voiding cystourethrogram enables a radiologist, a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations, to detect abnormalities in The flow of urine through the lower urinary tract. This examination is often recommended after a urinary tract infection to check for a condition known as Vesicoureteral (VU) reflux.
About VU Reflux
Urine is produced in the kidney and flows through the ureter, the tube that carries urine from each kidney to the bladder. A valve mechanism prevents urine from Backing up into the kidneys as the bladder gets full. Urine leaves the bladder through the urethra and is eliminated from the body during urination.

In some children, an abnormality in the valve or the ureters allows urine to flow backwards, a condition called VU reflux. In mild cases urine backs up into the lower ureter. In severe cases it can back up into the kidney. Usually, children with this condition are born with it. Other causes include:

  • Bladder obstruction
  • Abnormal urination with very high pressure within the bladder
  • Incomplete emptying of the bladder
  • Urinary tract infection.

Urinary tract infection may be the only symptom of the problem.

Any preparations needed?
You should inform your physician of any medications your child is taking and if he or she has any allergies, especially to contrast materials. Also inform your Doctor about recent illnesses or other medical conditions.

Your child does not need to fast or wear special clothing. Explain to your child what will happen during the examination so that there will be no confusion about what is expected. Your child will have to remove all clothing and wear a gown.

Sedation is rarely needed.